Journal Search Engine
Search Advanced Search Adode Reader(link)
Download PDF Export Citaion korean bibliography PMC previewer
ISSN : 2288-4637(Print)
ISSN : 2288-4645(Online)
The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business Vol.6 No.1 pp.303-314
DOI : http://doi.org/10.13106/jafeb.2019.vol6.no1.303

Development Inequalities in Autonomous Regions: A Study Pre-and Post- Special Autonomy in Indonesia’s Most Eastern Provinces

Mesak Iek1, Jhon Urasti Blesia2
1 First Author. Senior Lecturer, Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business, Cenderawasih University, Indonesia. E-mail: imesakick@yahoo.com
2 Corresponding Author. Lecturer, Department of Accounting, Faculty of Economics and Business, Cenderawasih University, Indonesia [Postal Address: 12 Auburn Avenue, Upper Riccarton, Christchurch, New Zealand, 8041]. E-mail: jhoe_bless@yahoo.com
August 28, 2018 December 13, 2018 January 9, 2019

Abstract

Indonesia’s most eastern provinces enjoy special autonomy status but still suffer from the highest poverty level in the entire nation. Using the Williamson index to test the Simon Kuznets theory, this study examines development equality at pre-and post-special autonomy in the provinces of Papua and West Papua. It uses gross domestic products per capita and population from 29 regencies/cities in Papua and 13 regencies/cities in West Papua to measure the Williamson index in addition to in-depth interviews with legislative members and document analysis to validate the findings. The study found that the regional development gap before special autonomy is relatively smaller than that existing after special autonomy. The Kuznets’ curve is not proven in the special autonomy era, meaning that the imposition of autonomy status has led to the creation of a higher development gap in these provinces. Although the special autonomy status has prompted an increased opportunity for political participation by the indigenous people, greater challenges are posed by the lack of human resources, poor government administration, difficult geographical access and the issue of land acquisition. Continuous development initiatives followed up with adequate supervision, greater transparency and law enforcement from government bureaucrats and legislatures are recommended to reduce the inequality.

JEL Classification Code: F63, H71, H72, H82.

초록


 

Figure

Table

Reference

  1. Abdullah, S., & Halim, A. (2003). Pengaruh dana alokasi umum (DAU) dan pendapatan asli daerah (PAD) terhadap belanja pemerintah daerah: Studi kasus kabupaten/kota di Jawa dan Bali. Surabaya, Indonesia: SNA.
  2. Adhim, C. (2013). Kemampuan keungan daerah dalam mendukung pelaksanaan otonomi daerah (Studi di Kabupaten Dompu tahun anggaran 2007-2011). Jurnal Ilmiah Mahasiswa FEB, 2(2). Retrieved from http://jimfeb.ub.ac.id/index.php/jimfeb/article/view/1098
  3. Akita, T. (2002). Regional income inequality in Indonesia and the initial impact of the economic crisis. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 38(2), 201-222.
  4. Akita, T., & Lukman, R. A. (1995). Interregional inequalities in Indonesia: A sectoral decomposition analysis for 1975–92. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 31(2), 61-81.
  5. Ariane, Z. (2017). 28,75 persen, Papua tertinggi buta aksara. Tabloit Jubi. Retrieved November 7, 2018 from http://tabloidjubi.com/m/artikel-9499-2875-persen-papua-tertinggi-buta-aksara.html
  6. Bird, R. M., & Vaillancourt, F. (2008). Fiscal Decentralization in Developing Countries. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
  7. Blesia, J. U., & Sulelino, R. (2016). The evaluation of major components of the corporate social responsibility in West Papua's health sector. Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences, 8(1), 77-98.
  8. Booth, A. (2000). Poverty and inequality in the Soeharto era: An assessment. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 36(1), 73-104.
  9. BPS Papua (2017). Papua Dalam Angka. Jayapura, Indonesia: BPS.
  10. BPS Papua Barat (2017). Papua Barat Dalam Angka. Manokwari, Indonesia: BPS.
  11. Crook, R. C., & Sverrisson, A. S. (2001). Decentralisation and poverty-alleviation in developing countries: a comparative analysis or, is West Bengal unique? (IDS Working Paper No. 130) Castle Donnington, UK: DFID
  12. Fattah, S., & Irman. (2012). Analisis ketergantungan fiskal pemerintah daerah di Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan pada era otonomi daerah. Prosiding Seminas, 1(2). Retrieved from http://journal.unipdu.ac.id/index.php/seminas/article/view/138
  13. Fritzen, S. A. (2006). Probing system limits: Decentralisation and local political accountability in Vietnam. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Administration, 28(1), 1-23.
  14. Galbraith, J. K. (2007). Global inequality and global macroeconomics. Journal of Policy Modeling, 29(4), 587-607.
  15. Gere, N. (2015). Merawat Kedaulatan Indonesia di Papua: Revitalisasi Prinsip Kedaulatan dan Prinsip Non-Intervensi dalam Piagam PBB. Jakarta, Indonesia: Antara Publishing.
  16. Gumelar, G. (2018). Menilik kembali 15 tahun perjalanan dana otonomi khusus Papua. CNN Indonesia. Retrieved November 11, 2018 from https://www.cnnindonesia.com/ ekonomi/20180207121048-532-274494/menilik-kembali-15-tahun-perjalanan-dana-otonomi-khusus-papua
  17. Iek, M. (2013). Analisis dampak pembangunan jalan terhadap pertumbuhan usaha ekonomi rakyat di pedalaman May Brat Provinsi Papua Barat (Studi kasus di Distrik Ayamaru, Aitinyo dan Aifat). Jurnal Ekonomi Kuantitatif Terapan, 6(1), 30-40.
  18. Islami, F. S., & Nugroho, S. (2018). Faktor-faktor mempengaruhi ketimpangan wilayah di Provinsi Jawa Timur, Indonesia. Media Ekonomi dan Manajemen, 33(1). Retrieved from http://jurnal.untagsmg.ac.id/index.php/fe/ article/view/564/0
  19. Jütting, J., Corsi, E., Kauffmann, C., McDonnell, I., Osterrieder, H., Pinaud, N., & Wegner, L. (2005). What makes decentralisation in developing countries pro-poor? The European Journal of Development Research, 17(4), 626-648.
  20. King, D. Y., & Weldon, P. D. (1977). Income distribution and levels of living in Java, 1963-1970. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 25(4), 699-711.
  21. Kumolo, T., & Tim. (2017). Nawacita Untuk Kesejahteraan Rakyat Indonesia – Integrasi Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional dan Daerah. Jakarta, Indonesia: Kompas Media Nusantara.
  22. Kompas (2017, February 24). Ketimpangan masih lebar - korporasi dikte perekonomian. Kompas, Section Business.
  23. Kulipossa, P. (2004). Decentralisation and democracy in developing countries: an overview. Development in Practice, 14(6), 768-779.
  24. Kuncoro, H. (2004). Pengaruh transfer antar pemerintah pada kinerja fiskal pemerintah daerah kota dan kabupaten di Indonesia. Economic Journal of Emerging Markets, 9(1), 47-63.
  25. Kuncoro, H. (2007). Fenomena flypaper effect pada kinerja keuangan pemerintah daerah kota dan kabupaten di Indonesia. Simposium Nasional Akuntansi X, 1-29. Makassar, Indonesia: SNA.
  26. Kuznets, S. (1968). Toward a Theory of Economic Growth, with reflection on the Economic Growth of Modern Nations. New York, NY: WW Norton.
  27. Livingstone, I., & Charlton, R. (2001). Financing decentralized development in a low‐income country: raising revenue for local government in Uganda. Development and Change, 32(1), 77-100.
  28. Marlissa, E. R., & Blesia, J. U. (2018). Fiscal dependence in a special autonomy region: evidence from a local government in eastern Indonesia. Journal of Economic Development, Environment and People, 7(1), 55-72.
  29. Meenakshisundaram, S. (1994). Decentralisation in Developing Countries. Delhi, India: Concept Publishing Company.
  30. Mollet, J. A. (2007). Educational investment in conflict areas of Indonesia: The case of West Papua Province. International Education Journal, 8(2), 155-166.
  31. Oxfam in Indonesia. (2017). Menuju Indonesia Yang Lebih Sejahtera. Jakarta, Indonesia: Oxfam. Retrieved November 7, 2018 from https://issuu.com/ oxfaminindonesia/docs/report_indonesia
  32. Pattabone, Y. A. M. (2018). Analisis kesenjangan pembangunan ekonomi antar kabupaten di Provinsi Jawa Timur dalam era otonomi daerah tahun 2011-2015. Surakarta, Indonesia: Undergraduate thesis, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta.
  33. Patton, & Cochran. (2002). A Guide to Using Qualitative Research Methodology: Medicins Sans Frontieres (Vol. 2nd). Newbury Park, Calif: Sage Publications.
  34. Pepinsky, T. B., & Wihardja, M. M. (2011). Decentralization and economic performance in Indonesia. Journal of East Asian Studies, 11(3), 337-371.
  35. Prud'Homme, R. (1995). The dangers of decentralization. The World Bank Research Observer, 10(2), 201-220.
  36. Ribot, J. C. (1999). Decentralisation, participation and accountability in Sahelian forestry: legal instruments of political-administrative control. Africa, 69(1), 23-65.
  37. Saparini, H., Faisal, M., Kuswara, U. D., Ishak, M., Manilet, Y., & Pangeran, A. (2014). Indonesia 2015 and Beyond: Reinventing Economic Priorities. Jakarta, Indonesia: CORE Indonesia.
  38. Sjafrizal, P. (2009). Teknik Praktis Penyusunan Rencana Pembangunan Daerah. Padang, Indonesia: Baduose Media.
  39. Smith, B. C. (1991). Introduction: development administration in the third development decade. B. C. Smith (Ed.). Progress in Development Administration: Selected Papers from Public Administration and Development, 1981-1991. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
  40. Smoke, P., & Lewis, B. D. (1996). Fiscal decentralization in Indonesia: A new approach to an old idea. World Development, 24(8), 1281-1299.
  41. Sumule, A. (2003a). Satu Setengah Tahun Otsus Papua: Refleksi dan Prospek. Manokwari, Indonesia: Yayasan ToPanG.
  42. Sumule, A. (2003b). Swimming against the current: the drafting of the Special Autonomy bill for the Province of Papua and its passage through the national parliament of Indonesia. The Journal of Pacific History, 38(3), 353-369.
  43. Suparmoko, M. (2008). Ekonomi Pembangunan (6 ed.). Yogyakarta, Indonesia: BPFE.
  44. Supriadi, H. (2016). Strategi kebijakan pembangunan pertanian di Papua Barat. Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian, 6(4), 352-377.
  45. Suryahadi, A., Hadiwidjaja, G., & Sumarto, S. (2012). Economic growth and poverty reduction in Indonesia before and after the Asian financial crisis. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 48(2), 209-227.
  46. Teorell, J., Torcal, M., & Montero, J. R. (2007). Political participation. In J.W. Van Deth, J.R. Montero, & A. Westholm (Eds.), Citizenship and Involvement in European Democracies: A Comparative Analysis (pp. 334-357). New York, NY: Routledge.
  47. Tim Uncen. (2015). Laporan evaluasi program/kegiatan otonomi khusus Kota Jayapura 2008-2014. Proseding. Jayapura, Indonesia: Keuda.
  48. Timmer, J. (2005). Decentralisation and elite politics in Papua. Working/Technical Paper at ANU Dept. of Pacific Affairs. Canberra, Australia: DPA.
  49. Todaro, M., & Smith, S. (2017). Pembangunan Ekonomi di Dunia Ketiga. Jakarta, Indonesia: Erlangga.
  50. Tongco, M. D. (2007). Purposive sampling as a tool for informant selection. Ethnobotany Research and Applications, 5, 147-158.
  51. Turner, M., & Hulme, D. (1997). Governance, administration, and development: Making the state work. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Pr Inc.
  52. Van den Broek, T. (2003, June 4-5). Key elements of the law on Special Autonomy for the Province of Papua. Conference on The Autonomy for Papua-Opportunity of Illusion? Watchindonesia. Retrieved November 7, 2018 from http://www.watchindonesia.org/6749/key-elements-special-autonomy-papua?lang=en
  53. Van Deth, J. W. (2015). Political participation. The International Encyclopedia of Political Communication, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118541555.wbiepc171
  54. Wally, Y. (2013). Percepatan Pembangunan dan Kemandirian Kampung. Yogyakarta, Indonesia: BPFE UGM.
  55. Widjojo, M. S., Elizabeth, A., Al Rahab, A., Pamungkas, C., & Dewi, R. (2010). Papua Road Map: Negotiating the Past, Improving the Present, and Securing the Future. Jakarta, Indonesia: Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia.
  56. Yusuf, A. A., & Sumner, A. (2015). Growth, poverty, and inequality under Jokowi. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 51(3), 323-348.